The Seahorse XF 24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer (Agilent, Beijing, China) was used to monitor ECAR of cells. Briefly, cells were seeded in a XF 24-well plate at a density of 1 × 104 per well and allowed to attach overnight. After serum starvation for 24 h, ECAR was detected with a Seahorse XF Glycolysis Stress Test kit (Agilent, Beijing, China) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The measurements were normalized to mitochondrial DNA.

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