Two researchers assessed the risk of bias within individual studies independently by using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool recommended by the Cochrane Handbook 5.1 (Higgins et al., 2011). The items evaluated were as follows: (1) random sequence generation (selection bias); (2) allocation concealment (selection bias); (3) blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias); (4) blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias); (5) incomplete outcome data (attrition bias); (6) selective reporting (reporting bias); and (7) other bias. Three levels of bias were used to assess each of these items: “low risk,” “unclear risk,” and “high risk”. Discrepancies were resolved either by consensus or consultation with a third investigator.

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