NoteExpress software (Wuhan University Library, Wuhan, China) was used to manage the literature and delete duplicate studies. Two investigators independently perused the titles to remove apparently irrelevant studies as well as reviews and animal experimental reports. Furthermore, they read the abstracts and full texts of the remaining studies to screen for potential studies according to the inclusion criteria and extracted data from eligible RCTs. Any divergences were resolved through discussion or by the third reviewer in the implementation process.

The data of the eligible studies were extracted into a predesigned Microsoft Excel sheet. The main components of the extracted data were as follows: (1) first author and publication year; (2) baseline characteristics, i.e., sample size, sex, TNM stage, median age, average age or age range; (3) information on the intervention: dosage, course, and treatment cycle; and (4) outcomes and outcome measurement data of interest to the study.

Note: The content above has been extracted from a research article, so it may not display correctly.

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