The data presented are shown as means + standard error of the mean (SEM). All data were analyzed by the commercially available software GraphPad 7.0. When two groups were compared, the unpaired, two-tailed Student’s t test was applied. For four or more group comparisons, one-way or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed, followed by the Bonferroni posthoc test, as appropriate. mRNA expression associations were evaluated with Pearson correlation. Yate’s chi-square test was performed for the single cell data. P values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

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