Country of birth was grouped into super-regions following the Global Burden of Disease classifications, based on epidemiological similarity and geographic closeness: Latin America and Caribbean; Sub-Saharan Africa; North Africa and Middle East; South East Asia, East Asia and Oceania; South Asia; and Central Europe, Eastern Europe and Central Asia.29 As to reason(s) for migration, we used the national classification based on the legal grounds for immigration. We grouped women into one out of three categories: refugee, work/education and family reunification. Maternal education was classified into three groups: no completed education, primary and secondary school, or university. Economic status was measured by asking the women if she had experienced difficulties making ends meet and paying monthly expenses, with responses ‘yes often’, ‘yes occasionally’ or ‘no never’. Having a Norwegian partner implied that the partner was born in Norway, regardless of ethnicity. Healthcare experiences were examined by asking the women about 11 specific healthcare experiences, grouped binary as positive or negative experiences.

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