Study eligibility was independently assessed through title, abstract, and full text-screening by two reviewers (A.V.C. and D.D.B.) using a standardised, unblinded approach. Studies were screened independently, and any disagreements were resolved at the end of each stage by A.V.C. and D.D.B., with any persistent disagreements resolved by a third reviewer (S.C.). If insufficient information was provided, the author(s) of the identified studies were contacted by email to provide relevant information for eligibility assessment.

The first reviewer (A.V.C.) used a standardised form to extract data using an adapted version of the Cochrane data collection form for intervention reviews: RCTs and non-RCTs [41]. The following data were extracted: country of study, sample demographics (e.g., age, sex, ethnicity, weight status, socioeconomic status), study characteristics (e.g., design, description, no. of study arms, length, follow-up period(s), setting), measurement characteristics (e.g., measurement tool, reported outcome), device characteristics (e.g., device brand and model), and study results.

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