2.3. Statistical Analysis
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Investigating the Effects of Distillers Grains on Heifer Feeding Behavior in the Finishing Phase
Animals (Basel), Jun 26, 2021; DOI: 10.3390/ani11071905

The experimental design was a randomized block with pen as the experimental unit. The MIXED procedure of SAS 9.4 (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC, USA) was used for all statistical analysis. The model included fixed effects of block, diet, time, and the interaction of diet and time. Pen nested in the treatment was included as a random effect [8]. Start BW and the most appropriate expected progeny differences (EPD) estimate were used as a covariate for BW, ADG, G:F, DMI, and all carcass traits to help account for initial and inherent genetic differences. When there was not an appropriate EPD, sire was included as a fixed effect. A repeated measures statement was used for time effect to analyze BW, ADG, G:F, and DMI using an autoregressive (1) covariate structure based on model fit statistics. When analyzing variation in feeding behavior traits, individual animal average for the feed behavior was used as a covariate. Cook’s D was used to identify outliers. When residuals were not normally distributed for several feeding behavior traits, the Box–Cox procedure was used to determine the appropriate transformation. Least squares means have been back-transformed for ease of interpretation. Significance was declared at p ≤ 0.05 and tendencies were discussed at 0.05 < p ≤ 0.10.

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