Continuous variables are reported as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Shapiro–Wilk test revealed non-normal distribution of quantitative and qualitative data. Accordingly, non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to account for differences between VNC/TNC and VMI40keV/arterial phase images values using JMP software (Version 13, SAS Institute, Cary, USA). Signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated as follows:

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