The modulation depth for each brushing session was calculated. The modulation depth between digits i and j is given below in Equation 1, where μi denotes the mean firing rate when digit i is brushed and σi denotes the SD. The jth digit is the finger that minimizes MDi in Equation 1, since the ith digit needs to be differentiated from the three other brushed fingers. The total modulation depth for the channel (MD) was defined herein as the average MDi for all four fingers as shown in Equation 2. The normalized MD (MDN) is given in Equation 3, where MDrand is the calculated modulation depth when the fingers associated with the brushing trials are randomly permutated and averaged over 1000 trials. Normalization was necessary because the spiking rates differed across finger-brushing trials and because a finger-brushing session with fewer trials would be biased toward higher modulation depths (for the same reason that the SEM decreases with an increasing number of samples), as follows:

Tuning curves were calculated for all discriminated single units (scores of 3 or 4). The mean and SEM for the spiking rate versus finger brushed are calculated for each of these multiunits.

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