VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells (1.8 × 105) were seeded in a 24-well plate with culture medium (DMEM high glucose medium supplemented with 10% FCS, 1% L-Glutamine, 1% Penicillin/Streptomycin; all reagents were obtained from Sigma Aldrich, Missouri, USA) and incubated overnight at 37°C and 5% CO2. On the following day, whole serum or plasma samples were serial-diluted from 1:1 to 1:6,250 and incubated with SARS-CoV-2 strains (1.5 × 104 PFU/ml) for 1 h at 37°C. After incubation serum/plasma-virus mix was ultracentrifuged and resuspended in DMEM high glucose medium supplemented with 5% FCS, 1% L-Glutamine, 1% Penicillin/Streptomycin. VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells were then inoculated with antibody-opsonized SARS-CoV-2 for 30 min on a shaker at RT and 30 min in an incubator at 37°C and 5% CO2. After incubation, inoculation medium was replaced with culture medium containing 1.5% Low-melt Agarose (Biozym, Oldendorf, Germany). Cells were incubated for 3 days at 37°C and 5% CO2 before plaque visualization and counting using 0.1% Neutral Red solution for 3 h (Sigma Aldrich, Missouri, USA).

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