Socioeconomic status of patients was identified using the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), a government generated score of deprivation on geographical location in England.25 Overall comorbidity level was calculated using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI).26 27 Ethnicity, as collected by NHS Digital, was included as a baseline covariate of interest, as national data is more inclusive than trial data, allowing us to identify any effect of ethnicity.28 Baseline incidence of other conditions associated with BTOA pathogenesis in the literature were also identified using OPCS and ICD codes from previous episodes of secondary care, including a medical history of carpal tunnel syndrome, knee osteoarthritis, generalised osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, wrist fracture and oophorectomy.

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