Compositional isotemporal substitution analysis was used to provide meaningful interpretation of the expected change (in min/day) in leisure time-use compositions when time was reallocated between behaviours during work on workdays. This was done using the multivariate regression Model 2, stratified on each workday of the week. First, a “reference” leisure time-use composition (average daily leisure time spent sedentary, standing and active) was estimated for the workers’ mean work time-use composition (average min of work time spent sedentary, standing and active for that particular day). Second, new work time-use compositions were calculated where time (15, 30 and 45 min) had been reallocated between behaviours. This enabled us to express effect sizes as expected changes in leisure time behaviours in min/day. Note that results are only shown for workdays where the work behaviours were significantly associated with the leisure time behaviours. A detailed description of this method based on ilr linear regression with non-compositional and compositional outcomes can be found in Dumuid et al. [35] and Lund Rasmussen et al. [36].

All analyses were performed in R version 1.1.3 [37], using the compositions [38] and MCMCglmm [39] packages. We used the MCMCglmm package to conduct the multivariate multilevel analysis, following the guide provided by Baldwin et al. [40], by which a Bayesian approach with uninformative priors were used. The assumptions of normality and homoscedasticity of the residuals were assessed for all models by visual inspection of residuals versus predicted values and quantile-quantile plots.

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