Rats were anesthetized and the dorsal surface of each rat was shaved and swapped with antiseptic solution (70% ethanol). A full-thickness acute excision circle (1 cm in diameter) was engraved on each rat’s dorsal surface. Lidocaine hydrochloride (2%) containing 1:80,000 epinephrine (4.4 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously near the wound area immediately after wounding to reduce pain. With the exception of untreated animals, an amount of 0.5 g of each assigned treatment was applied to wounded area in each animal. The wounds were then covered with Vaseline Gauzes dressing and was changed once daily.

Wounded rats were arbitrarily alienated into five groups (10 each) as follows:

Group 1: Untreated control rats with no treatment.

Group 2: Treated topically once daily with the plain vehicle (mixture of polyethylene glycol 200 and tween 80 in 1:1 ratio) in the wound area.

Group 3: Treated topically once daily with regular OFI seed oil in the wound area.

Group 4: Treated topically once daily with OFI-SNEDDS in the wound area.

Group 5: Positive control and treated topically once daily with Mebo® ointment, Julfar, UAE (β-sitosterol, berberine, and baicalin as active ingredients in a base of beeswax and sesame oil) in the wound area.

All treatments continued for 14 days. Wounds were assessed and photographed at days 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14. At day 7, four animals from each group were sacrificed by decapitation and the skin in the wound area was dissected out and kept in 10% formalin/saline. At day 14, the rest of animals in all groups were sacrificed by ether overdose and the skin in the wound area was dissected. Part of the skin from each animal was kept in 10% neutral formalin and the other part was flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and kept in −80°C for further analyses.

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