The primary outcome measured was all-cause mortality (ACM) over a ten-year follow-up period. Other observed outcomes included MACCE (a composite outcome of ACM, stroke, myocardial infarction, and revascularization), immediate complications during hospitalization (including post-surgery atrial fibrillation (AF), pneumonia, cardiogenic shock, wound infection, re-surgery, and acute renal failure), and late complications during the follow-up period (including ST elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, and re-hospitalization due congestive heart failure).

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