Convergent construct validity was evaluated by comparing the Pearson correlation coefficients of the Chinese version of the PaArticular Scales to both the WHOQoL-BREF and WHODAS 2.0–36 items, which have been used previously among elderly residents in LTC facilities. These comparisons are valuable because alterations in activity and participation are accompanied by alterations in participants’ QoL [41, 42]. The point-biserial correlation coefficient was used to calculate the correlations among the Chinese version of the WHOQoL-BREF, the Chinese version of the WHODAS 2.0–36 items, and the Chinese version of the PaArticular Scales total score to establish concurrent validity. All data were statistically analysed using the SPSS 22.0 software package (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA).

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