The internal consistency reliability was tested by using McDonald’s ω (hierarchical), Cronbach’s α, and McDonald’s ω total for each competency [34]. The α value is expressed as a number between 0 and 1; thus, an α value of ≥ 0.91 indicates excellent reliability, and a value between 0.90 and 0.71 indicates acceptable reliability [35]. Two types of item analysis were used, including (1) within-item relevance and (2) item-to-total correlation, to analyse the homogeneity of the research tool. Finally, the correlation between the subscale and the total scale was analysed. Cronbach’s α coefficient was used to measure the internal consistency reliability between the Chinese version of the PaArticular Scales and its subscales.

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