The resident list was obtained approximately 1 week after communicating with the LTC facilities, and institutional residents who met the criteria were selected from the list. The study participants generally completed the questionnaire independently. However, if a participant was unable to complete the questionnaire independently because of vision, hearing, reading, or writing limitations, then the interviewers trained in the consensus camp provided assistance (e.g., explaining some sentences to clarify the meaning). Three interviewers were trained in basic counselling techniques and relaxation exercises and were trained to continue until a consensus was reached on the meaning and means of the questionnaires. Care was taken that the method of assistance provided by the interviewers in answering the questions was consistent for all of the participants (e.g., the examples provided for answering the questions were the same), which followed the data collection procedure of Chen et al. [13].

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