The Chinese version of the PaArticular Scales for joint contractures was generated from the English version through five stages: translation, review, back-translation, review by a panel of specialists, and a pretest (Supplementary File 4). The Chinese version of the PaArticular Scales contains 35 items; the Activity subscale has 24 items, and the Participation subscale has 11 items. The sum of the Activity and Participation domain scores ranges from 0 (fewest limitations) to 47 (maximum limitations) and from 0 (fewest restrictions) to 19 (maximum restrictions), respectively. A higher score indicates greater activity limitations and participation restrictions. Because the scale is an organized face-to-face contact scale to assess activity and participation, before the assessment, the assessor emphasized that the study participants must describe their present surroundings and not imaginary surroundings or their original home surroundings.

In terms of reliability, Cronbach’s α coefficients of the internal consistency of the Activity subscale and the Participation subscale are 0.96 and 0.92, respectively, in the English version. Additionally, McDonald’s ω totals are 0.98 and 0.95, respectively [15], indicating high internal consistency. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the Activity and Participation subscales determined using the criterion validity of the visual analogue scale of the EuroQol-5 dimensions (EQ-5D), which is one of the most frequently used generic health status measurement tools, demonstrated good validity and reliability, at − 0.40 (p > .001) and − 0.30 (p > .001), respectively [15]. The EQ-5D is a generic health-related QoL questionnaire [25]. The Activities and Participation subscales have negative Pearson correlations with the EQ-5D, indicating that higher QoL corresponds to lower activity limitations and participation restrictions.

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