The Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) was used to evaluate the cognitive status of participants [23]. This instrument employs a simple quantitative assessment scale and is widely used in clinics and research studies to evaluate cognitive function and screen cognitive impairment. The MMSE has 13 items, with a total score of 33, and takes only 5 to 10 min to complete. A higher score indicates better cognitive function. The test-retest reliability of the MMSE is good, and the interrater reliability correlation coefficient is 0.8 [23]. An MMSE score of 25 or less is defined as cognitive impairment [24].

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