The multistage sampling method was used to perform random sampling between April and June 2020. For factor analysis, the sample size for items was 5 to 10 according to previous studies [17, 18]. The Chinese version of the PaArticular Scales (Supplementary File 3) has 35 items; therefore, a sample size of 175 to 350 participants was determined to be appropriate for factor analysis in this study [19].

The inclusion criteria of the participants were as follows: (1) age ≥ 65 years old; (2) residence at a facility for > 6 months; (3) sufficient language skills to complete the questionnaire; and (4) severe joint contractures in any single important joint (hand, elbow, shoulder, ankle, knee, or hip) with authentication from a doctor, nurse, or therapist. Severe joint contractures were defined by a score of 3 on a 4-point scale (loss of more than two-thirds of joint range of motion) [20, 21]. Individuals with cognitive impairment and major mental illness diagnosed by physicians were excluded.

Note: The content above has been extracted from a research article, so it may not display correctly.



Q&A
Please log in to submit your questions online.
Your question will be posted on the Bio-101 website. We will send your questions to the authors of this protocol and Bio-protocol community members who are experienced with this method. you will be informed using the email address associated with your Bio-protocol account.



We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. By using our website, you are agreeing to allow the storage of cookies on your computer.