Transthoracic echocardiography was performed using a Vivid S6 M4S‐RS Probe (GE Ving‐Med) interfaced with a 2.5 to 3.5 MHz phased‐array probe by a trained cardiologist (D. Z.). All the examinations were performed according to the American Society of Echocardiography guideline recommendation. 30 The left atrial (LA) volume was assessed using the modified biplane Simpson's rule from the apical two‐chamber and four‐chamber views at end systole. LA volume was indexed to BSA, with a value >34 mL/m2 was considered LA enlargement. 31 The LV linear dimensions were measured from a parasternal long‐axis view. Relative wall thickness was calculated as (septal wall thickness + LV posterior wall thickness) divided by LV end‐diastolic diameter, and relative wall thickness > 0.42 was considered concentric remodelling. LV end‐diastolic diameter, LV posterior wall thickness, and septal wall thickness at diastole were used to calculate LVM. LVM was indexed to BSA, with a value ≥115 g/m2 for men and ≥95 g/m2 for women was considered LVH. Based on the presence of concentric remodelling and LVH, LV geometry was classified into normal, concentric remodelling, and concentric and eccentric hypertrophy. Stroke volume (SV) was calculated as LV end‐diastolic volume (LVEDV) minus LV end‐systolic volume. The LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was calculated based on modified biplane Simpson's rule. Mitral inflow velocity (peak E‐wave and A‐wave) was assessed using pulsed‐wave Doppler from the apical four‐chamber view. Peak early systolic tissue velocity (S') and peak early diastolic tissue velocity (e') were measured from the septal aspect of the mitral annulus. According to the guideline recommendation, 31 septal e' velocity < 7 cm/s was considered LV diastolic dysfunction and septal E/e' ratio > 15 was considered an increased LV filling pressure.

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