Prior to blood pressure (BP) measurements, participants were required to stay at rest in a sitting position for 5 min. According to the Chinese hypertension guideline, 28 two BP measurements were performed with at least 1 min interval with upper arm kept at the heart level using the Omron HEM‐7051 device (Omron HealthCare, Kyoto, Japan). The average value of two BP readings was recorded. If the first two BP readings differed by >5 mmHg, an additional BP measurement was performed, and the mean value of three readings was recorded. Pulse pressure was calculated as systolic BP minus diastolic BP.

Weight and height were measured with participants standing without wearing heavy clothes or shoes by trained healthcare staffs. Body weight was determined using an electronic scale, and height was measured with a wall‐mounted stadiometer. BMI was calculated by weight in kilograms divided by height in squared metres, with a value ≥28 kg/m2 was defined as general obesity. 29 WC was measured at the level of the midpoint between the top of the iliac crest and the lower margin of the last palpable rib in the midaxillary line, with a value ≥90 cm for men and ≥85 cm for women was defined as abdominal obesity. 1 Body surface area (BSA) was calculated as follows: BSA (m2) = (Weight [kg]0.425 * Height [cm]0.725) * 0.007184.

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