The human hepatoma Huh-7 cell lines (European Collection of Cell Culture) and the human epithelial HeLa cell lines (kind gift from Robert Menard, Malaria Infection and Immunity Unit, Institute Pasteur Paris, France) were maintained in minimum essential medium (MEM) containing Earle's salts supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS), 2 mM L-glutamine, and 100 U penicillin, 100 µg/ml streptomycin (cMEM) (all from PAA laboratories; E15-024, A15-101, P11-010, M11-004). Cells were kept at 37°C in a 5% CO2 cell incubator and were split every 4 day by treatment with accutase. For infections (except for high-content imaging, see below), 20,000 cells were seeded into 24-well plates and infected with P. berghei sporozoites with an multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1. Infected cells were maintained in cMEM and 2.5 µg/ml amphotericin B (AT-MEM) (PAA laboratories; P11-001) to avoid fungal contamination. AT-MEM was exchanged every 12 h. Selected time points for assaying infection were 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 56 hpi.

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