For the participants’ baseline characteristics, quantitative variables were described as mean±SD if normally distributed and as median and Interquartile Range (IQR) otherwise and were compared using Student’s t-test or Mann–Whitney U test respectively. Qualitative variables were described as number (%) and were compared using Chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test depending on size (>5). Univariable Cox regression was used to identify factors associated with rehospitalization or death. All baseline variables with a p-value < 0.20 in univariable analysis and all the variables already known to be confounding factors were included in multivariable Cox regression model. The hazard radio (HR) and the confidence intervals (CI) were presented in the charts.

Reproducibility of the measurement methods was assessed by Spearman’s correlation coefficients and Interclass correlation coefficient.

All p-values were two-sided and p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

All statistics were performed using the R statistical package, version 3.6.2 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria).

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