The experimental mice were randomly divided into the following 5 groups (n=10): the Sham group, the Curcumol-H group, the OVA group, the OVA+Curcumol-L group, and the OVA+Curcumol-H group.

The flow chart of the treatment is shown in Figure 1A. In brief, for the Sham group, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 200 μL of 0.9% NaCl solution without OVA and Al(OH)3 in the sensitization stage. In the maintenance stage, all OVA administrations of mice were replaced by 20 μL of 0.9% NaCl solution. For the Curcumol-H group, on the basis of the Sham group, the mice were orally administrated with 20 μL of Curcumol (80 mg/kg, in 0.9% NaCl solution) 2 h before each NaCl administration in the maintenance stage. For the OVA group, the administration of the mice was the same as that adopted in the establishment of the chronic asthmatic model. For the OVA+Curcumol-L and OVA+Curcumol-H groups, on the basis of the OVA group, the mice were orally administrated with 20 μL of curcumol (20 or 80 mg/kg, in 0.9% NaCl solution) 2 h before each OVA administration in the maintenance stage.

On the last day of administration, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) of mice was first examined. After the mice were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of 2% sodium pentobarbital (B005, JianCheng Bio, Nanjing, http://www.njjcbio.com/) at a dose of 50 mg/kg, the cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), blood, lung tissues, and airway tissues were collected.

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