During the first year, study visits occurred every 4 weeks that started at treatment week 4; however, during the second and third years study visits were conducted every 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Laboratory assessments included a complete blood count with platelets, serum chemistries, fasting lipid panel, standard measures of renal function (serum creatinine, eGFRCG, proteinuria by dipstick), and quantitative markers of proteinuria (protein-to-creatinine ratio [UPCR], the albumin-to-creatinine ratio [UACR], retinol binding protein-to-creatinine ratio [RBP:Cr], and the β2-microglobulin-to-creatinine ratio [β2M:Cr]; Covance Laboratories, Shanghai, China). Changes in BMD were assessed in patients at sites that were able to perform dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning of the lumbar spine and hip. DXA scans were performed at screening, and then every 24 weeks. In addition, fasting serum biomarkers of bone turnover were measured, including C-type collagen sequences and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide, which are sensitive markers of bone resorption and formation, respectively.

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