The current study is a secondary, exploratory analysis of an ongoing longitudinal observational study which began recruiting in 2015; other findings have been reported (e.g., Shank et al., 2019). Participants were healthy youth between 8–17 years, with a BMI ≥ 5th percentile adjusted for age and sex (Kuczmarski et al., 2002), recruited through physicians’ offices, newspaper and online advertisements, and posted flyers. Exclusion criteria included major medical or psychiatric conditions, recent weight loss exceeding 5% of body weight, history of pregnancy or brain injury, and regular use of medications/substances known to impact eating and/or weight. Participants completed two baseline screening visits (within one month, on average) at the National Institutes of Health Hatfield Clinical Research Center. At both visits, participants completed interviews and questionnaires (each completed once); for the second visit, participants fasted overnight and anthropometric measurements were collected. Children and parents gave written assent and consent, respectively. The study procedure was approved by the institutional review board at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

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