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Differences between ATB and LTBI groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U test, or chi-square test. To build the diagnostic model for differentiating ATB from LTBI, all variables with statistical significance were taken as candidates for further multivariable logistic regression analyses; and then the regression equation (diagnostic model) was obtained and a score for each individual was calculated.

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to test the ability of various methods to distinguish ATB from LTBI. Area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and accuracy, together with their 95% confidence intervals (CI), were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 25.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) and GraphPad Prism 6 (GraphPad Software, CA, USA). Statistical significance was determined as a P value of less than 0.05.

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