All required data were extracted conforming to the standardized extraction checklist for the following data: the first author’s name, journal and year of publication, variables adjusted for, country of origin, ethnicity, mean, median or range of age, and odds ratio (OR) and corresponding confidence interval (CI) for outcomes. Moreover, Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was applied to assess the overall quality of the evidence in each pooled analysis [26].

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