Tissues were fixed in a combination of 4% formaldehyde and 2.5% paraformaldehyde in 0.2 M cacodylate buffer. Tissues were then embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate) under vacuum (Ngo et al., 2019). Following this, the sample was precision CNC-milled and etched using 0.02 M hydrochloric acid and 10% sodium hypochlorite to remove organic and inorganic top layer, in order to reveal cellular material (Reilly et al., 2001; Knapp et al., 2002). The sample was then carbon coated and placed under a vacuum, preparing for mSEM imaging. Imaging was performed on the 61-beam Zeiss MultiSEM 505-prototype at 12 nm pixel size.

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