An ophthalmologic examination that included a slit-lamp examination, an intraocular pressure measurement using a non-contact tonometer, and a fundus examination after pupillary dilation was performed at each visit. The refractive error of each eye was measured using an autorefractor, and then converted to spherical equivalents [diopters (D)]. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of the affected eye(s) was checked using a decimal visual acuity chart; each value was converted to a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR). Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) (Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) imaging were performed using enhanced depth imaging. Fluorescein angiography was performed at the first visit using the Heidelberg Retina Angiograph system (HRA-2; Heidelberg Engineering) with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope.

Central macular thickness (CMT) measured using SD OCT was defined as the mean retinal thickness in the central subfield, a region with a diameter of 1.0 mm around the fovea. The inner and the outer rings had diameters of 3.0 mm and 6.0 mm, respectively. The CMT in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) macular grid subfields was automatically calculated using the Heidelberg software. The ETDRS grid was manually centered at the fovea if needed. All SD OCT images were reviewed for segmentation errors.

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