For all patients, MR imaging was acquired within 72 hours before tumor resection. The MR scans were acquired on a 3T MR scanner (Verio; Siemens) using a 16‐channel head coil. The routine diagnostic protocol included T1w imaging, CE T1w imaging, T2w imaging, and T2‐FLAIR imaging. Axial T1w scanning was acquired at spin‐echo sequence with the following parameters: TR/TE of 400 ms/15 ms, matrix of 320 × 192, FOV of 24 cm, and a voxel size of 0.4 × 0.4 × 6 mm3. T2 weighted scanning was acquired at a fast spin‐echo sequence with a TR/TE of 6000 ms/99 ms, matrix of 320 × 192, FOV of 24 cm, and a voxel size of 0.4 × 0.4 × 6 mm3. T2‐FLAIR was acquired at a TR/TE of 9000 ms/94 ms, matrix of 320 × 192, FOV of 24 cm, and a voxel size of 0.5 × 0.5 × 6 mm3. Contrast‐enhanced T1w scanning was acquired at a 3‐D MP RAGE sequence with a TR/TE of 2100 ms/2.299 ms, matrix of 512 × 512, FOV of 24 cm, and a voxel size of 0.9 × 0.9 × 0.9 mm3, after administration of the contrast agent gadodiamide (0.1 mmol/kg; Omniscan, GE Medical Systems) at a rate of 2.5‐3 mL/s, followed by a 20 cm3 saline chaser at the same flow rate.

For all subjects, the entire tumor 3‐D ROI was segmented manually using ITK‐SNAP software (version 3.4.0; http://www.itksnap.org) 12 in each sequence. The ROIs include the entire tumor avoiding blood vessels and discernible peritumoral edema. This was carried out by a clinical radiologist (LW with 4 years of experience) and verified by a senior radiologist (WH with 11 years of experience), who were blinded to molecular information.

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