A DNA microarray experiment was carried out by Macrogen (Seoul, Korea). Total cDNA was synthesized using the GeneChip Whole Transcript Amplification kit as described by the manufacturer. Then, the sense cDNA was fragmented and biotin-labeled with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase using the GeneChip WT Terminal labeling kit. Approximately 5.5 μg of labeled DNA target was hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Array at 45 °C for 16 hrs. Hybridized arrays were washed and stained on a GeneChip Fluidics Station 450 and scanned on an Affymetrix GCS3000 Scanner. Array data export processing and analysis were performed using Affymetrix GeneChip Command Console Software. Affymetrix Power Tools and R 3.1.2 were used for the analysis.

Hierarchical clustering was done by the complete linkage Euclidean method. Gene enrichment and functional annotation analysis were performed using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway. Significance was calculated by modified fisher’s exact test.

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