We produced 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid-capped AuNPs (mAuNPs) using a ligand exchange method starting from citrate-capped AuNPs (Supporting Information).17,18 The as-synthesized mAuNPs were characterized by optical absorption spectrum, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Absorption spectra were measured using a microplate reader (Multiskan spectrum 1500, Thermo Electron Co., Finland). The TEM measurements were performed using a Tecnai TF20 transmission electron microscopy (FEI Co., USA) at 200 kV. The concentration of AuNPs was measured using an IRIS ER/S ICP-AES (TJA Co., USA) after the AuNPs had been dissolved by aqua regia. The hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential of AuNPs were measured at room temperature by dynamic light scattering using a zeta particle size analyzer (Nano-ZS, Malvern, England). The data were collected on an autocorrelator with a detection angle of scattered light of 173°.

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