The H9 hESC were obtained from WiCell (Madison, WI) under a material transfer agreement. Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM), DMEM/F12 HEPES, Knockout serum replacement, E8 medium, L-glutamine, penicillin–streptomycin, non-essential amino acids, 2-mercaptoethanol, NBT/BCIP Substrate Solution, Trizol reagent, SYBR Green Real-Time PCR master mix, and colcemid KaryoMAX were purchased from Thermo Fisher Scientific (Waltham, MA, USA). L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate, sodium selenite, sodium citrate solution, Gurr’s/Leishmann’s stain, and CCK-8 solution were from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Holo-transferrin and insulin were from Prospec (Rehovot, Israel). Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was from GenScript (Piscataway, NJ). hFGF-2 [42] and hDJ-1 [17] were made in our laboratories. hESC-qualified Matrigel, fetal bovine serum (FBS), and ultra-low attachment plates were from Corning (Corning, NY, USA). RNase inhibitor was from Roche (Basel, Switzerland). RT-qPCR primers were from Macrogen (Seoul, Korea). The sequences of the primers are listed in Supplementary Table S1. Collagenase IV and mitomycin C were from Worthington Biochemical (Lakewood, NJ, USA). Y-27632 was from Tocris Bioscience (Bristol, UK). NaCl was from Samchun Chemical (Pyeongtaek, Korea). The cDNA Reverse Transcription Kit and Human Clariom S Assay kit for the DNA microarray were from Applied Biosystems (Waltham, MA, USA). Spurr’s embedding medium was from Electron Microscopy Science (Hatfield, PA, USA). NOD/SCID mice were from Koatech (Pyeongtaek, Korea). The antibodies were obtained from Abcam (Cambridge Science Park, UK), R&D Systems (Minneapolis, MN, USA), and Thermo Fisher Scientific (Waltham, MA, USA), as listed in Table S2. All materials were analytical grade or cell-culture grade.

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