Secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were detected with a Quantikine® rat VEGF assay (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. VEGF concentration in the SC-CM-DMEM was detected firstly. IECs were cultured in SC-CM-DMEM or DMEM with 2% FBS. The VEGF concentration in the supernatants of the wells was detected by ELISA on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. The medium in all the detected wells was fully replaced 24 h before each time point at which the supernatant was collected and analyzed.

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