60 nm gold nanospheres were purchased from BBI Solutions (England). Sodium tetrachloropalladate (II) (Na2PdCl4), ascorbic acid (≥99%), and chloroauric acid hydrate (AuCl4·4H2O, 47.8%) were purchased from Aladdin Reagent Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China). Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), RPMI-1640, fetal bovine serum (FBS), dimethyl sulfoxide, and trypsin-EDTA (0.25%) were purchased from Gibco (USA). Deionized water was prepared using a Millipore System (18 MΩ·cm). Cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8), crystal violet staining solution, 4% paraformaldehyde, and fluorescein isothiocyanate were obtained from Thermo Fisher (USA).

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