2.2. Measurements of The Levels of Air Pollutants, Sand Dust Particles, and Weather Data

The hourly concentrations of PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and photochemical oxidants (Ox) are monitored by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment in Matsue City, and these data were obtained from the ministry database. The data of meteorological variables, including daily temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure, were obtained from the Japan Meteorological Agency.

Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems measure PM as non-spherical airborne particles, which are equivalent to desert sand dust particles from East Asia; spherical airborne particles, which are equal to air pollution aerosols, are measured by illuminating a target with two laser beams of different wavelengths and analyzing the reflected light [34,35]. Both levels of spherical and non-spherical particles are measured at 15-min intervals, and daily particle levels are determined from the median value of 96 measurements collected over a 24-h period from midnight of the first day to midnight of the following day. LIDAR is used to monitor the concentration of desert sand dust particles from East Asia. For the current analysis, LIDAR data for spherical and non-spherical particles were obtained from the Matsue observatory. Values measured at 120–150 m above the ground, which is the minimum altitude required by LIDAR systems to measure non-spherical and spherical particles, were used.

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