We published detailed methods for the HAHPS (Hydroxychloroquine versus Azithromycin for Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19) trial previously (23). We enrolled patients from April 3 to June 19, 2020, at 13 hospitals in Utah. We enrolled hospitalized patients with symptomatic laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 within 10 days of a positive test for COVID-19. Patients were excluded for ethical reasons (e.g., prisoners) or for safety reasons (e.g., known long QT, seizure disorder, or renal or liver failure). Further details of eligibility criteria are provided in the trial protocol (appended to the online supplement) and the detailed methods publication (23).

Eligible patients were randomly assigned (permuted blocks with concealed allocation) in a 1:1 ratio to hydroxychloroquine or azithromycin. Randomization was stratified by study site. Hydroxychloroquine sulfate was administered orally as a loading dose of 400 mg twice on the first day, followed by 200 mg twice daily for the following 4 days (total dose, 2.4 gm) or until discharge or death. Azithromycin was administered orally as a loading dose of 500 mg on the first day, followed by 250 mg daily for the next 4 days (total dose, 1.5 gm) or until discharge or death. The study protocol was approved by the Intermountain Institutional Review Board and Data and Safety Monitoring Board, both of which oversaw the trial. Informed consent (according to pandemic procedures using no-touch procedures, as published previously) (23) was obtained from each patient (or legally authorized representative, as appropriate) before any study procedures were performed. The funder (the Heart and Lung Foundation of the Intermountain Research and Medical Foundation) had no input into the design or reporting of the trial.

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