All statistical analyses were carried out using Stata, version 14.[32] The significance threshold was set at P = 0.05. We first determined the percentage of patients able to successfully complete each task with respect to infarct location (RH vs LH, cortical vs subcortical). The presence of aphasia as a confounding factor was noted. Participants unable to complete a given task were removed from further analysis with respect to that task.

We next evaluated our primary outcome of interest, the percentage of patients in which an abnormal singing rating correctly identified a cortical lesion location. Chi-squared analysis was then used to formally examine the association between infarct location and singing rating. Univariate analysis using t tests (for continuous variables) and chi-squared tests (for categorical variables) was also performed to evaluate for potential confounding factors including age, sex, handedness, hemisphere, and depression.

To evaluate the effect of lesion location on parameters of the fundamental frequency, independent t tests were performed. The t tests were also used to determine the extent of prosodic impairment based on lesion location, by evaluating the relationship between location and errors in emotion recognition and production. Multivariate linear regression models were then used to evaluate the interaction between lesion location, hemisphere, age, and sex.

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