The recordings of participants singing “Happy Birthday” were analyzed using Praat, version 6.[30] Recordings were edited to exclude any speech. A customized script was used to extract 3 parameters of fundamental frequency (F0): its mean (F0mean), range (F0range), and coefficient of variation (F0CV).[31] Parameters of duration were not evaluated, as they tended to be highly variable among participants and were thought to be potentially confounded by their energy level at the time of evaluation.

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