The developed IC method was applied to monitor anions in soil and culture-only batch microcosms. Soil laboratory microcosms (Ziv-El et al., 2011; Rangan et al., 2020; Joshi et al., 2021) focused on abiotic and microbiological Cr (VI) reduction were established in 160 mL glass serum bottles with 25 g of Cr (VI)-contaminated soil and 100 mL anaerobic mineral medium as described elsewhere (Delgado et al., 2012, 2017). The soil was collected from 0 to 0.25 m depth at the TCCL site, India, and was homogenized in the anaerobic glove chamber (Coy Laboratory Products, Inc., Grass Lake, MI) under 3.5% H2 and 96.5% N2 atmosphere. Two grams per liter yeast extract and 10 mM lactate (870 mg/L) were added to the microcosms as electrons and carbon sources for the microorganisms. The initial Cr (VI) concentration in the soil microcosms was ∼90 mg/L.

Culture-only microcosms (Delgado et al., 2014, 2016) focused on microbiological Cr (VI) reduction were established in 160 mL serum bottles containing 100 mL anaerobic mineral medium as used in soil microcosms. The inoculum (4% v/v) was a mixed culture grown on Cr (VI) and lactate. The culture-only microcosms were amended with 1 g/L yeast extract and 3 mM lactate (∼260 mg/L). The initial concentration of Cr (VI) was 15 mg/L. All (soil and culture-only) microcosms were established in triplicates, were incubated in the dark at 30°C, and were shaken on a platform shaker at 125 rpm. Liquid samples from the soil microcosms were collected for IC analysis during the experiment at 0.2, 3.7, and 8.2 h. Liquid samples from the culture-only microcosms were collected at 0, 2, 7, 10, 11, 14, and 17 days. The liquid samples were filtered using 0.2 μm syringe filters (mdi Membrane Technologies, Inc., Harrisburg, PA) and analyzed for anions by IC.

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