Participants were asked to sing “Happy Birthday.” This song was chosen given its widespread familiarity and well-known tune and its utility in assessing recitation, melody, and rhythm of speech as part of the BDAE-III battery.[26] Though the use of words during song production were encouraged both to better orient the participant to the task given its familiarity and that the majority of participants were not aphasic, they were not required (humming or other vocalization was acceptable), as the focus was on the appropriate modulation of pitch. An iPhone 8 was placed 2 to 3 inches from the mouth of the participant and its recording program used to record the song for further analysis (below). Participants were consented by the study team to have their singing recorded and stored for later evaluation.

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