Pubertal status was classified in 5 stages according to Tanner [45]. Weight and height were measured following standard procedures [46]. BMI was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)2. Standard deviation scores (SDS) of weight, stature, and BMI were calculated using Italian growth charts [44]. Waist circumference was measured at the midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest [47]. Alcohol consumption was determined by interview with the children/adolescents and/or their parents. No patients were treated with hepatotoxic drugs or exposed to iron overloads.

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