This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the State University of Maringa (approval number 1246516), according to resolution no. 466/12 of research involving human beings and with the Declaration of Helsinki under ethical principles for medical research involving human beings.

Patient 1 is a 69-year-old male with no known underlying disease; his medical history includes abnormal fasting glycemia and, therefore, did not receive medication. He has had nail injury in both feet compromising one hallux and the adjacent skin (tinea pedis) for approximately 50 years; his nail bed was thickened and associated with nail dystrophy. He had been treated with oral medication in the past but without clinical cure. Patient 2 was a 65-year-old female with chronic hypertension on continuous medication. She presented a toe-nail damage with keratosis and associated dystrophy for at least six years. This patient had been treated, in another service, with topical terbinafine but without improvement.

These patients were selected from a bigger project that included our previous publication [11]. Both gave their written consent for the treatment of onychomycosis only by a topical application of a 10% hydroalcoholic propolis extract, made in ethanol (PE), provided by the UEM school pharmacy.

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