Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, Duksan, Seoul, Korea, 99%), methyl alcohol (MeOH, Duksan, Seoul, Korea, 99%), potassium hydroxide (KOH, Duksan, Seoul, Korea, 99%), palladium chloride (PdCl2, Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA, 99%), hydrochloric acid (HCl, Daejung, Siheung, Korea, 0.1 N), polyacrylonitrile (PAN, Jilin Carbon Co., Ltd. Dalian, China), low-molecular-weight polyvinyl alcohol (PVA_L, Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA, 99%, molar weight (Mw); 85,000–124,000, degree of polymerization (DP); 2000, degree of hydrolysis (DH); 99%) and high-molecular-weight polyvinyl alcohol (PVA_H, Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA, 99%, Mw; 146,000–186,000, DP; 4000, DH; 99%) were used in this study.

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