To evaluate the fear of COVID-19 respondents were asked the following questions: “Are you afraid that you will contract the coronavirus?” and “Does the possibility that a member of your family could contract the coronavirus and die because of it, make you frightened?” The response scale ranges from 1 to 5 (“Never” to “Very Much”). Because the two questions were highly correlated (r = 0.60, p < 0.001), they were treated as indicators of the fear of COVID-19. The scale exhibited good internal consistency in the total sample (α = 0.74), for the Latvian version (α = 0.73), and for the Russian version (α = 0.77). An average score was computed to create a composite variable for further analysis.

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