To investigate whether advertisement calls with different notes replaced by noise affect female preference, we performed 3 two‐stimulus choice tests. In all tests, one stimulus was a complete advertisement call (AC), another stimulus was a noise‐impaired call (AN2, AN3, or AN4). The three stimulus pairs were played randomly, and the two stimuli in each stimulus pair were presented alternately by two portable field speakers (SME‐AFS, Saul Mineroff Electronics), placed equidistant on the opposite side of the sound‐attenuating chamber, 220 cm apart. To control potential bias, stimulus pairs were randomly broadcast at peak level of 80 dB SPL (re 20 µPa, Z‐weighted), measured by a sound pressure level meter (AWA 6291, Hangzhou Aihua Instruments Co.) at the site where the female was released, 1 m away from the speaker.

Before each test, the subject was placed in the center of the chamber, under a transparent hemisphere with some holes at the bottom (12.8 cm in diameter, 1.3 mm thick) for 60 s to acclimate. After acclimation, the female frog was released to make a choice. For each test, we recorded the starting time (defined as the moment the hemisphere was raised), the time female frog leaving the release point as the latency to move, and the time female frog arriving the choice zone (i.e., within 10 cm of a speaker) as the latency to choose. The latency to move and the latency to choose can indicate whether females showed different levels of motivation for identifying diverse stimulus pairs. Furthermore, we scored a choice when the female approached the choice zone within 10 min without simply following the wall. If she did not reach the choice zone within 10 min, or was unable to leave the release location in 5 min, we scored no choice. All behaviors of females were observed on a monitor using a wide‐angle lens video system with an infrared light source (also see Zhu, Wang, Zhao, et al., 2017).

Each female was tested only once with any given stimulus. To avoid experimental fatigue, each subject was allowed a 3‐min break between consecutive tests. During the interval of each test, we mopped the floor to keep the arena moist and to eliminate possible chemical cues. After the experiments, female body size was measured (snout–vent length: 47.34 ± 2.37 mm, N = 52; body mass: 7.17 ± 1.10 g, N = 52).

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