The data of 378 IBC patients who underwent preoperative X-ray mammography (with confirmation by surgery and pathology) in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from January 2015 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The images were read and reported on by two senior imaging physicians. The patients were aged between 25 and 86 years, with an average age of 53.2 ± 12.0 years.

The patient inclusion criteria were (1) that they met the diagnostic criteria for IBC;5 (2) that they had undergone breast X-ray mammography and had surgically and pathologically confirmed invasive ductal breast carcinoma; (3) that complete clinical and molybdenum target X-ray mammography data were available; and (4) that they had provided signed informed consent.

The exclusion criteria ruled out (1) patients who had not undergone surgery; (2) male patients; (3) patients with non-IBC pathology; (4) patients who had received radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or endocrine-targeted therapy before the examination; and (5) special populations, such as pregnant or lactating patients and those with malignant tumors other than IBC.

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