Our study was conducted from May to August 2020 at the Mt. Diaoluo National Reserve in Hainan, China (18.44°N, 109.52°E, elevation of 933 m a.s.l.). The experiments were conducted from 20:00 to 01:00 the next day. The average temperature and relative humidity were 22.5 ± 0.8℃ and 97.6 ± 3.6%, respectively.

Gravid females and calling males were captured from the breeding sites per night. All subjects were housed individually in plastic cages (L × W × H: 28 × 18 × 15 cm) containing water and plants with natural temperature and photoperiod. The interval between collecting and testing was an average of 1 hr. Female phonotaxis experiments were conducted in a darkened sound‐attenuating chamber (L × W × H: 280 × 180 × 185 cm). Male playback experiments were carried out in enclosure constructed of wire mesh (L × W × H: 42 × 32 × 90 cm), which were far from choruses (Deng et al., 2020). Males could move freely in enclosure, with soil and plants provided.

To avoid recapturing in the wild on subsequent nights, passive integrated transponders tags (PIT, 60 mg; HT950, Guangzhou Hongteng Barcode Technology Co. Ltd.) were injected subcutaneously into the dorsum of frogs after testing, and the specific tag number was obtained by PIT scanner (HT8000; Guangzhou Hongteng Barcode Technology Co. Ltd.) (Pyke, 2005; Salazar et al., 2016). After the injection, the wound was wiped with diluted alcohol to avoid infection. All frogs used in our study were released to the captured site immediately after testing, after being held in the cages for an average of 3 hr between the capture and the end of the experimental procedures. Our subsequent observations showed that such treatment did not affect the activities of frogs in the wild, such as climbing and mating.

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Animal Care and Use Committee of Chengdu Institute of Biology, CAS (CIB2016008).

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